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About Me

  1. This is an external study being allowed by the forum but not sponsored or supported by the forum itself.Hello EveryoneMy Name is Dr Samuel Pountney, I am a reproductive physiologist who specialises in domestication of new and novels species. I am currently an Independent researcher who is looking to characterise the production of fish by ornamental hobbyists.In this thread I am going to be posting a link to my survey (s) which I am conducting in order to be able to work towards this goal.I am looking to the help of everyone on this forum, please read the below information should you wish to take part, then follow the link to the survey in the following post. Should you wish to get more information you can either post on this thread, Directly message me, or contact my email (listed below, and on the survey).IntroductionOrnamental aquaculture is one of the highest value aquaculture industries, with estimations of value between $15 and $30 billion USD (Moorhead & Zeng, 2010), with approximately over 5000 individual freshwater species and 1600 marine species traded internationally (Moorhead & Zeng, 2010, Novak et al. 2020). For comparison, the highest value food fish species (Atlantic Salmon) is valued at $16.7 Billion USD (Tacon., 2020). The industry is estimated to exceed $40 billion USD by 2026 (Beijnen et al. 2020). However, the literature focus and the estimations have so far not considered the growing number of Hobbyist breeders, sellers and small communities dedicated to breeding, selling, and distributing new varieties, hybrids and potentially species. Rhyne (2010) and Rhyne et al (2017) has identified the importance of documenting the hobbyist-lead initiatives and breeding programs, where an access to information limits adequate stock management, future research and encourages detrimental practices and isolationism between the industry and the scientific community.Because this section of the industry has, as of yet, been undocumented there is very little knowledge or monetary investment into anything other than the high value or historic species (e.g., Koi, Goldfish, Betta, Discus, Clownfish). However, there have been repeat calls for academia to engage with this aquaculture sector (Rhyme et al 2017), for animal welfare issues, conservation concerns (Rhyne et al 2009), and reduction of alien species introductions (Ladisa et al. 2017). For example, some of these hybrid “species”, such as the hybridisation of several Cichlid species the “Flowerhorn”, are becoming highly invasive in certain regions (Herder et al. 2012). Many authors note considerable issues in reporting of information regarding this sector. Rhyne et al. (2012a; 2015) relies on international trade invoices to obtain data, and many cite social media platforms such as YouTube, and Forums (Marchio, 2018) in order to attempt to include the hobbyist factor. Many others, due to lack of scientific documentation, do not include it into their analysis (Olivotto et al 2011).The sale of these fish appears to occur through, breeders’ websites, auction sites e.g., eBay, and more recently through Whatsapp and Facebook Marketplace as well as to local pet shops or clubs and thus there is limited information on the value of these transactions, with only international transactions having been documented (Rhyne et al., 2015). However, estimations from eBay listings on 11/05/21 there were 13,388 individual listings for live fish on eBay with prices ranging from $10 USD to over $2000 USD per fish, an estimation of the total value for 11/05/21’s listings stood at $3.1 Million USD.While there is a significant increase in sales of ornamental fish from produced by aquaculture farms (Beijnen et al. 2020) there is a significant number of dedicated hobbyists refusing to purchase fish from certain places (e.g., Indonesia, Africa), or individual species/ taxa (e.g. Gourami), or from aquaculture in general. Often due to perceived (true or not) health risks, environmental impacts, or other ethical reasons. Indeed, there has been a full circle back to wild caught fish due to the perceived cultural, environmental, and ethical benefits reviewed in Evers et al, (2019). A 2016 survey from the pet owners survey by the APPA (USA) identified that only 40% of fish owners buy fish from a chain or small local shop.In a sector which is already undervalued and under reported, this area of work is significantly overlooked. With repeat calls from several areas of biological concern to document and better understand and engage this aquaculture sector it is imperative that steps are taken to being to understand this unknown areas of aquaculture production.Aims:This study aims to; Characterize the Hobbyist ornamental industry. Determine the value of the industry. Estimate the number of species, hybrids, variants being produced and traded. Identify the requirements of this industry through. Knowledge gaps, e.g., broodstock management, nutrition, genetics ect. Tool requirements, eg handbooks, biomarkers, testing capacity, transportation information MethodologyThis project proposes the use of surveys to achieve its aims, the researcher would aim to reach out to the hobbyist community to directly engage over the study period with those actively involved in breeding and selling ornamental fish. As this Industry/ community favours the online and “social media” approach, the researcher would attempt to address them through their preferred platforms. While social media will allow for a wider audience, the researchers would hope to aim on three main areas of interest, North America, Europe, and Australia.There is limited information on the population we will be surveying. There are estimations that between 14% and 50% of households have some form of pet fish, dependant on country. Because of this the required number of respondents to produce a valid study is unknown, an acceptable response rate cannot be realistically suggested from estimate data. E.g. With an estimate 14% of households in the UK keeping fish, to achieve a 50% response rate, a total of 1.34 million responses would be required. A level which is neither realistic or expected.The researcher aims to conduct a number of surveys over the course of the project. Large scale initial small survey with the aim of mapping a large proportion of the sector. Small number of questions Identify the proportion of people who engage in the industry. Gain an overall grasp of the value and volume of the “industry”. Monetary value of animals an services, Approximate the number of species, hybrids and variants being traded. Some potential issues and problems encountered This would then inform the creation of a more specific survey (s) to; Address knowledge gaps Industry requirements Standard practices Welfare issues Add detail regarding species, variants, and hybrids being produced. Attempt to flesh out realistic effort regarding numbers. Breeding concerns Diseases, inbreeding ect. Outcomes expected.The researcher has a proven track record of publishing work in new species as well as delivery of outcomes for externally funded projects (eg AquaExcell). The dataset once analysed will be published in a timely manner in an appropriate research journal, eg Journal of Fish biology. At the project’s completion the researcher would expect to produce a minimum of two scientific publications. Results will also be disseminated at appropriate conferences, such as EAS or WAS. Additionally, due to the nature of sector, distribution of the outcomes would aim to also be open source where possible. With additional distribution (once published) through channels preferred by those in the sector such as conferences, podcasts and community talks.This study will play an important role in characterising this relatively undocumented aquaculture sector. As a result, it would provide a platform for the development of further research into an estimated 6600 species with little to no peer reviewed publications to date. At its completion, this research would aim to inform the many areas of concern for the ornamental sector specifically those regrading breeding and genetics, sustainability, and conservation.Ethical considerationsThis work is not expected to cause any significant or lasting harm to the participants of the study. All data collected will conform to the UK data protection standards and participants will be free to withdraw from the study at any time.Ethics statement"If you decide to take part in this study you are able withdraw at any time by contacting the provided email address. By completing this form you are giving your consent to the data provided to be used in research articles published in peer reviewed journals such as Aquaculture, or Journal of Fish Biology. The complete dataset will also be presented at scientific conferences such as Aquaculture North America, or Meeting of the World Aquaculture society. And upon publication of the work the findings will be communicated back to the hobbyist community, through forums, conferences, and open access materials. This form is not collecting any personal information which can identify you as an individual, and you do not have to answer all of the questions to submit, should you not wish to do so. There is one compulsory question, regarding where you saw the link to the survey, this is required so the response rate for the study can be calculated. Despite not collecting any personal information all data collected in this study will be stored and managed in accordance with General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (UK). You have the right to request to see a copy of the information we hold about you and to request corrections or deletions of the information that is no longer required. You have the right to withdraw from this project at any time without giving reasons and without consequences to you. You also have the right to object to us processing relevant personal data however, please note that once the data are being analysed and/or results published it may not be possible to remove your data from the study." ExpensesThe project is expected to require no external or internal funding. Any funding that is required will be sought from external sources, if necessary, e.g., FSBI, OATA. The lead researcher has a proven track record of accessing additional funding during projects, should this be necessary.ReferencesBeijnen 2020 https://thefishsite.com/articles/is...nvasive-and-non-native-species-worth-the-risk Evers, H. G., Pinnegar, J. K., & Taylor, M. I. (2019). Where are they all from?–sources and sustainability in the ornamental freshwater fish trade. Journal of fish biology, 94(6), 909-916. Herder, F., Schliewen, U. K., Geiger, M. F., Hadiaty, R. K., Gray, S. M., McKinnon, J. S., ... & Pfaender, J. (2012). Alien invasion in Wallace's Dreamponds: records of the hybridogenic" flowerhorn" cichlid in Lake Matano, with an annotated checklist of fish species introduced to the Malili Lakes system in Sulawesi. Aquatic Invasions, 7(4). Ladisa, C., Bruni, M., & Lovatelli, A. (2017). Overview of ornamental species aquaculture. FAO Aquaculture Newsletter, (56), 39. Marchio, E. A. (2018). The art of aquarium keeping communicates science and conservation. Frontiers in Communication, 3, 17. Moorhead, J. A., & Zeng, C. (2010). Development of captive breeding techniques for marine ornamental fish: a review. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 18(4), 315-343. Novák, J., Kalous, L., & Patoka, J. (2020). Modern ornamental aquaculture in Europe: Early history of freshwater fish imports. Reviews in Aquaculture, 12(4), 2042-2060. Olivotto, I., Planas, M., Simões, N., Holt, G. J., Avella, M. A., and Calado, R. (2011). Advances in breeding and rearing marine ornamentals. J. World Aquac. Soc. 42, 135–166. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.2011.00453.x Rhyne, A., Rotjan, R., Bruckner, A., and Tlusty, M. (2009). Crawling to collapse: ecologically unsound ornamental invertebrate fisheries. PLoS ONE 4:e8413. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008413 Rhyne, A. L. (2010). The importance of open access in technology transfer for marine ornamental aquaculture: the case of hobbyist-led breeding initiative. Rhyne, A. L., Tlusty, M. F., Szczebak, J., & Holmberg, R. J. (2015). When one code= 2,300 species: Expanding our understanding of the trade in aquatic marine wildlife. PeerJ PrePrints, 3, e1176v1. Rhyne, A. L., Tlusty, M. F., & Szczebak, J. T. (2017). Early culture trials and an overview on US marine ornamental species trade. Marine ornamental species aquaculture, 51-70. Tacon, A. G. (2020). Trends in global aquaculture and aquafeed production: 2000–2017. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture, 28(1), 43-56.This is an external study being allowed by the forum but not sponsored or supported by the forum itself.
  2. Does anyone have good recommendations for books on aquariums and fish in general? I would love something that goes into different species of fish and general facts about them as well as any other resources for learning. thanks in advance, David
  3. Hello everyone, So I am an avid researcher, and love learning more about the things I am passionate about. So wanting to do more specific research on specific types of fish, plants, etc. However, much of what Google produces is basic overviews that do not go into depth on much. That and with no experience with the book, I do not want to waste time and money on a bunch of bad ones. So baring going straight for the overwhelming world of Google Scholar, what are some of your favorite books/research sources in the hobby? For example, if you know a book about Crypts, I would love to read it. Book about Killifish or Nirite snails? I would love to hear about it. Websites, blogs, videos, etc? Thanks so much for your help!
  4. I think this is safe, but if not would one of the moderators please remove it. If you listen to Randy's Podcast you should recognize this organization, and Dr. Mazeroll. They have a free speaker series that they are hosting via Zoom. Next weeks is about the electric fishes (there is a registration form at the bottom of the page to get the Zoom link). I have attended a couple of these over the last few weeks, and they have been pretty informative. https://amazonresearchcenter.dm.networkforgood.com/emails/1171962 (I did take my referral ID out of the URL, so any strangeness you see on the page is due to that).
  5. Manual Highlights Arthropods That Curb Aquatic Weeds https://www.ars.usda.gov/is/np/aquaticweeds/aquaticweeds.pdf A manual developed by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and now available online helps scientists, resource managers and others identify biological control insects that play a key role in helping to control aquatic weeds. The importance of these plant-feeding insects to the dynamics of aquatic and wetland ecosystems is the focus of the new, online reference called "Insects and Other Arthropods That Feed on Aquatic and Wetland Plants." The 200-page manual explains the life cycles of more than 50 of the most common insects and mites found in aquatic environments. The manual was originally published by ARS scientists at the Invasive Plant Research Laboratory (IPRL) in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., in cooperation with colleagues from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. [Editor's note (July 1, 2005): ARS' supply of printed copies of the manual is now exhausted, but web visitors can view or download the online version.] The IPRL mission is to address the complex, multifaceted problems caused by the invasion of natural and agricultural ecosystems by exotic species. Non-native plants pose some of the most serious threats to the health and integrity of these ecosystems, according to Ted D. Center, IPRL research leader. Center and other researchers at the lab conduct research to evaluate the impact of exotic plants, as well as the safety and effectiveness of biological control and other methods for managing them. The easy-to-use manual presents data gathered through their work with common native plant-feeding insects and naturalized imported biological control insects. It underscores the importance of these insects in curbing invasive aquatic and wetland weeds. The manual is organized alphabetically by plant name, from alligatorweed to water-primrose, and the various insects that attack them. Each section includes a history of each insect, its host plants, and its biology and ecology. A special section concentrates on insects with broad diets--those that can't be listed as feeding on just one particular host plant. For example, the red spider mite (Tetranychus tumidus) feeds on plantain, mango, corn, sweet potato and citrus, as well as on water hyacinth. The online version of the IPRL manual is available at: https://www.ars.usda.gov/is/np/aquaticweeds/aquaticweeds.pdf
  6. I figured considering the time of year of with all of the recent posts on summer tubbing, I'd make a recommendation for a book on the topic that I just picked up, The Tub Pond Handbook (3rd Edition) by Dr. Ted Coletti (I'm in no way affiliated with the author, just a fish hobbyist writing a glowing review for a recent book I picked-up, hoping other people may find the recommendation useful!). Though I love books, I very rarely buy them for the aquarium hobby, as I personally find that a lot of books at this point either contain outdated information, or that's it's easier to find what I consider to be more current and better information on forums like this or a handful of youtube channels. However, Dr. Ted came to speak for an hour recently for our local aquarium club virtual meeting. I thought the presentation was packed full of very useful information (and excellent pictures, all of his own backyard tubs, of which he currently has 30!), plus he's been actually keeping backyard ponds for 20 years, all relatively small and nearly all above ground. He's a big proponent of using plants for filtration, and I don't believe that he runs filters or heaters for any of his tubs. His book is an easy to read and reference how-to manual on planting a beautiful summer tub, with recommendations for containers, plants, fish, how to handle pests, timelines, how to overwinter plants, etc., and helped to answer a bunch of the questions I had about the process still after reading about it through online articles, on forums, and watching youtube videos. Some of the information on water quality and the nitrogen cycle is old news for anyone that's been in the hobby a while, but probably still useful and worth including for newer hobbyists. The 3rd edition of this book just came out this month, so it's very up-to-date. You can get it on Amazon and it's pretty reasonably priced I think for $18 (there's also a kindle edition): https://www.amazon.com/Tub-Pond-Handbook-Comprehensive-Container/dp/B091W9WLDP/
  7. Hi friends!! Because I am new to the hobby, I am not always hip to the lingo...so, I thought it would be useful to have a list of acronyms used around the forum for beginners, like me! I searched the forum to see if a post like this had already been made, but I couldn't find one...if this already exists, please let me know! I'll keep editing this first post as my knowledge grows...feel free to suggest some acronyms for my list! Equipment HALF - Heater, Air pump, Light and Filter HOB [filter] - Hang on Back PAR [meter] - Photosynthetically Active Radiation (meter used for measuring light intensity) RO [filter] - Reverse Osmosis (method for filtering/de-ionizing water) RO/DI [water] - de-ionized water (pure water, containing no salt ions or minerals) TDS [meter] - Total Dissolved Solids (more dissolved solids = more dissolved ions = more conductivity/TDS) UGF - Under Gravel Filter Water Statistics/Parameters NH3 - Ammonia NH4 - Ammonium (positive ion) NO2 - Nitrite (negative ion) NO3 - Nitrate (negative ion) GH - General Hardness (measured in degrees - or, dGH - amount of calcium and/or magnesium ions a.k.a. "hardness") KH - Carbonate Hardness (measured in degrees - or, dKH - prevents sudden pH swings) pH - Power of Hydrogen (measure of acidity; scales from 0-14) PPM - Parts Per Million Flora BBA - Black Beard Algae BGA - Blue Green Algae DBF - Driftwood Bio Film (#gross) IAL - Indian Almond Leaf GDA - Green Dust Algae GHA - Green Hair Algae GSA - Green Spot Algae PSO - Pogostemon Stellatus 'Octopus' Fauna BB - Beneficial Bacteria BBS - Baby Brine Shrimp CPD - Celestial Pearl Danios CRS - Crystal Red Shrimp GBR - German Blue Ram GSP - Green Spotted Puffer MTS - Malaysian Trumpet Snail NEO[s] - Neocaridina davidi shrimp RCS - Red Cherry Shrimp SAE - Siamese Algae Eater SAP - South American Puffer WCMM - White Cloud Mountain Minnow Saltwater/Marine FO [tank] - Fish Only FOWLR [tank] - Fish Only With Live Rock (without intentional coral vs. a reef tank that contains coral, anemones, and other saltwater invertebrates) Other ACO - Aquarium Co-Op BAP - Breeders Award Program CARE - Community Aquarists Respect Each other CFI - CARE Forum Investigates CPS - Chain Pet Store DIY - Do It Yourself ELI5 - Explain Like I'm 5 ETA - Edited To Add FWIW - For What It's Worth HAP - Horticulture Award Program IIRC - If I Remember Correctly LFC - Local Fish Club LFS - Local Fish Store LPS - Local Pet Store MJS - Multiple Jar Syndrome (pre-industrial) MTS - Multiple Tank Syndrome ORD - Out of Reactions for the Day OTS - Old Tank Syndrome PITA - Pain In The As...terisk! 😜 PWC - Partial Water Change QT - Quarantine STT - Seasoned Tank Time SNAFU - Situation Nermal, All Fixed Up (algae and parameters under control!) TFH - Tropical Fish Hobbyist [Magazine] TIL - Today I Learned TLA - Three Letter Acronym TL/DR - Too long, didn't read (usually prefaces a quick summary of the content) W/C - Water Change WYSIWYG - What You See Is What You Get UMTS - Unresolved Multiple Tank Syndrome
  8. Shoaling and schooling In biology, any group of fish that stay together for social reasons are shoaling, and if the group is swimming in the same direction in a coordinated manner, they are schooling. In common usage, the terms are sometimes used rather loosely. Wikipedia
  9. Was looking for recommendations on good books related to Neocaridina breeding, color lines, culling, etc.
  10. Howdy Nerms, I was just pondering about a good book about fresh water fish or aquariums. If you have any recommendations that would be great. Many thanks! Tedrock. Meme was posted by Kevin Green - July 10, 2020. It makes me laugh because it is true.
  11. My favorite book of tropical fish.Bought it at 15.Lost for 50 years and now I have it again. Anyone familiar with this book?Written by Dr. Innes
  12. Hello all! I'm currently in a biology class and have the opportunity to conduct an independent research project or experiment for an assignment, it does NOT have to be complicated or extremely in depth. It can be on any biology related topic, so I'd love to do an experiment involving something aquarium fish/aquatic plant related. I thought it might be fun to see what kind of ideas for experiments some of you might have – I'm currently brainstorming and am allowed to ask for ideas, so hit me with your best shots! Examples: What is the best form of ammonia/waste to use to cycle an aquarium? Does the temperature of the water affect the basking frequency of aquatic turtles? How does gravel depth affect the growth of [some plant]? Basically, a question where I can isolate a variable and gauge the animal's/plant's response to changes in that variable. And also preferably something that won't take more than a month or two to gather data. Open to anything, let's see what you all got!
  13. I recently read Walstad's book and loved it, but I don't really have a good book on freshwater aquarium fish or plant species. I had one years ago, but I passed it one a long time ago. I'd love to find an up-to-date book or two (or three 😁) on freshwater fish and/or plants. Any suggestions?
  14. A while back Cory mentioned that Aquarium Co Op was sponsoring a video/documentary. I was wondering if anyone had the link to it? Also the purchase price and availability? thanks.
  15. Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    This eBook posted online at < http://killi.co.za > under "useful links" at: < http://killi.co.za/doc/keepingkillifish.pdf >
  16. Version 1.0.0

    7 downloads

    This eBook posted online at < http://killi.co.za > under "useful links" at: < http://killi.co.za/doc/Killifish_The_eBook.pdf >
  17. Hey all, I have 3 boys of 6, 3, and 1 year of age. Obviously I want to share the hobby with them. Do you have any good books that I can get (maybe on kindle) that I can use to share with them? Thanks, Derek
  18. Ah, my Google News algorithm knows me well. Interesting article on fish scale "armor" and the trilineatus cory. https://api.nationalgeographic.com/distribution/public/amp/animals/2021/01/tiny-catfish-shrugs-off-piranha-bites
  19. Hi everybody, I am working on becoming a biology teacher (just finishing my associated of science now). I was thinking about running a breeding project in class to help get kids invested and to use as visual/tactile teaching examples (ecosystems, natural selection, anatomy, reproduction, etc.). My thought was to have the class chose what traits we are trying to breed for, selectively breed, and keep record of each generation to see how close to the "goal" we get by the end. I do not yet have experience breeding fish (about one year into the hobby) and was wondering is this possible? I was first thinking guppies but in looking found sources saying that female guppy reach sexual maturity at 3 months, this would mean only three generations in a school year which I am concerned would be not enough to notice change from parent generation (i was hoping for 5? maybe that would be enough?). Would three generations be enough? I saw some articles saying Nothobranchius furzeri reached sexual maturity in a few weeks but would you be able to selectively breed them for traits enough to see a different result? I love the life in biology and would hope to share some of that passion through this... it would also allow me to "play" with fish for work 🙂 I would likely try and run this at home before I start teaching to help work out the kinks. -Thanks
  20. One of our schools participates in a Cooperative Nursery Program with the State of Vermont, raising a tank of fry, with a chiller. I decided to research the state breeding programs, and found out some interesting stuff. They have five hatcheries, referred to as Fish Culture Stations, and produce approximately 100,000 fish, weighing a total of 6000 lbs. The oldest is from 1891, another from 1916, and then 1931. This is what they produce to stock in Lake Champlain, and the inland waters: Brook Trout, Brown Trout, Lake Trout, Landlocked Atlantic Salmon, Rainbow Trout, Steelhead Trout Fish Culture | Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department VTFISHANDWILDLIFE.COM I'm sure most states and provinces have facilities like these, but I never thought of them as destinations before. When visitation options resume, I hope to make a few road trips to see these facilities. I think it would be awesome to see how they do it. I'm now researching the Fish Management Programs and found a couple of cool items: That page highlights a nice list of key features of a healthy river for trout: diverse, complex, messy, connected, and the right temperature. Wood is Good for Brook Trout - Prepared by Jud Kratzer, Fisheries Biologist - 12/28/2018 That is a very good report into the importance of wood in riparian ecosystems.
  21. I really feel bad for fish that are abused and I want to help them. I think the most abused fish are goldfish and bettas. Does any one have ideas. I feel that since many of us are knowledgeable about fish, it is our duty to try to inform new people to the hobby. I would love to see fish be medicated, bettas with heaters and 5-10 gallons, and goldfish in big tanks. Does anybody have ideas or are already working on this. One of my ideas is to try to convince places like Petco to put posters up about good fish care. I don't know... I just get so mad when I see these amazing fish abused. Thanks
  22. Hello there! I recently got my son a fish tank for his birthday - and since then found Aquarium Co-Op and have been obsessed with this hobby! One day I would love to feel educated enough to recreate and keep a gorgeous tank filled with guppies just like the tank @Dean’s Fishroom let @Lizzie Block put together. Is there a thread for newbies such as myself that I can read through? I am looking for all the info! Maybe a video series like fish keeping 101? I am also interested in info on the pro/cons of glass tanks vs acrylic & brand recomendations. The different ways to filter a tank, why you would use one vs another and brand recommendations. There are so many basics to fish keeping I want to learn as much as I can before I attempt more than my sons 15 gal tank! Thank you!
  23. Hey guys I have an school project where I need to ask people six questions I came up with about aquarium filters and I figured Id ask them here. Thanks for you help if you do answer them. Do the looks of Hang on Back, Canister filters, or sponge filters bother you, if so why? What function would you want to add to Hang on back or Canister filters? How often and why do you clean your hang on Back or Canister filter? How do you clean your Canister or Hang on Back filter? (is their something specific that bothers you about this process) What types of filter media do you put in your Hang on Back or canister filter, why? In what ways do you modify your Hang on Back or Canister Filter?
  24. Let's see those antique tanks or cool aquarium books from back when we all had to read magazines and books to learn about the hobby! I found these at a book store while on vacation in Daytona and had to pick them up!
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