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i was catching up on the livestreams and cory mentioned that he doesnt think that melafix is actually effective. there have actually been some studies done on melafix that i wanted to share here for everyone’s reference. i am very sorry about formatting in advance, im on mobile which is a pita as is but ill try my best. Laboratory evaluation of safety and efficacy for MELAFIX® (melaleuca cajuputi extract) Abstract and Figures A study was performed at the North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, to assess the safety and efficacy of Melafix®, an aquarium product produced by Mars Fishcare Incorporated. Studies were carried out on the goldfish (Carassius auratus), a freshwater species, and the false percula clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris), a marine fish. Animals were monitored closely and evaluated microscopically after exposure to Melafix® according to the label directions for a period of 28 days. Water quality parameters were monitored on a daily basis. The use of Melafix® on goldfish and clownfish appears to be safe since no adverse effects were noted during the experimental period. The results also showed that Melafix® has no impact on the water quality parameters tested. In vitro efficacy studies were carried out by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Melafix® on various pathogens. The study revealed that Melafix® had no significant bactericidal or inhibitory effect on any of the pathogens tested. This observation suggests that anecdotal benefits of Melafix® are not due to antibacterial activity. This topic will require further research and possibly an in vivo study. this study also says that while not harmful to most fish, it can be harmful to anabantoids by coating their labrynth organ. Efficacy of commercially available products against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infections on guppies Poecilia reticulata Abstract The demand for ornamental fish has led to a steep rise in aquaculture for the hobbyist trade, promoting the emergence, persistence and spread of various infectious diseases. Complete control of disease outbreaks with antibiotics and chemical-based medicines is rare, but plant compounds may herald potential alternatives effective against a range of pathogens. Melafix® and Pimafix® are formulated with the essential oils cajuput (Melaleuca cajuputi) and West Indian bay (Pimenta racemosa) and are marketed against bacterial and fungal infections, respectively. Previous experiments showed high efficacy of emulsified cajuput oil against gyrodactylids; the current study tested Melafix® and Pimafix® and their individual compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppies Poecilia reticulata. In particular, a combination treatment of Melafix® and Pimafix® was highly effective at reducing in vitro survival of parasites from 15 to 2 h and eradicating 95% of gyrodactylids in vivo. The unexpected high efficacy of this combination treatment is likely explained by the high content of terpenes and phenol propanoids in the cajuput and West Indian bay oils, as well as the anti-helminthic properties of the emulsifier Crovol PK 70. Hence, Melafix® and Pimafix® effectively reduce gyrodactylid burdens on fish, increasing the chances of efficient disease control in ornamental fish. additional studies/info not directly related to melafix but studying the healing properties of tea tree oils in fish vet labels for melafix and pimafix not fda approved, shows some other info on ingredients ___________________________________________ l Antimicrobials: Peptide antibiotics in mast cells of fish Antimicrobial peptides are increasingly recognized as a critical first line of defence against many pathogens and have been isolated from epithelial tissues and blood cells of many vertebrates, as well as from prokaryotes, plants and invertebrates. Here we show that 'piscidins', a previously undiscovered family of peptide antibiotics isolated from fish, reside in mast cells, an immune cell of uncertain function that is present in all vertebrate classes. Until now, no peptide antibiotic has been isolated from the mast cells of any animal, and our discovery indicates that these cells may be critical in fighting many infectious diseases. ___________________________________________ Effect of Australian tea tree oil on Gyrodactylus spp. infection of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Gyrodactylus spp. infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Existing treatments have proved uneconomic, stressful to the fishes, and ecologically damaging. Essential oils are naturally occurring compounds that exhibit a wide range of anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities. This study explored the possibility of using Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) to treat Gyrodactylus spp. infection on the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. In the presence of 0.01 % Tween 80 as an emulsifier, TTO treatments at concentrations between 3 and 30 ppmv (parts per million by volume) lowered the prevalence and significantly reduced the parasite burden of sticklebacks naturally infected with Gyrodactylus spp. In addition, Tween 80 alone exhibited parasiticidal activity against Gyrodactylus spp. These findings show the potential of TTO in combination with Tween 80 as an effective treatment of Gyrodactylus spp. infection of fishes. ___________________________________________ Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil prevents bioenergetics dysfunction in spleen of silver catfish naturally infected with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Abstract Some evidence has demonstrated that Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, etiologic agent of "white spot disease", causes severe bioenergetics dysfunction in the spleen of naturally infected silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen), which contributes directly to disease pathogenesis. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, popularly known as tea tree oil (TTO), in the treatment of freshwater fish naturally or experimentally infected with I. multifiliis. In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether TTO is capable of preventing or reducing splenic bioenergetics dysfunction in silver catfish naturally infected with I. multifiliis. Splenic cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activities decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals, while adenylate kinase (AK) activity increased. Treatment with TTO was able to prevent the inhibition on splenic CK and PK activities but was not able to prevent the stimulation of AK activity. Based on this evidence, treatment with TTO prevents the impairment on energetic metabolism via improvement of enzymes belonging to the phosphotransfer network, such as CK and PK. In summary, this treatment can be considered an interesting approach to prevent the bioenergetics imbalance in spleen of silver catfish naturally infected with I. multifiliis. ___________________________________________ Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil prevents alterations to purinergic enzymes and ameliorates the innate immune response in silver catfish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila Abstract Aeromonas hydrophila infection represents a major impediment to the development of aquaculture, leading to important economic losses. Over the last few years, different methods have been used to counteract and minimize the negative effects of this infection, such as the use of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, popularly known as tea tree oil (TTO), that possess a bactericide action against A. hydrophila. The purinergic system develops an important role in the inflammatory response, principally due to involvement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the inflammatory process, as well as by the anti-inflammatory properties of adenosine (Ado), a molecule that is controlled by NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzymes. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of purinergic enzymes in the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila infection, and whether the purinergic pathway and innate immune response are involved in the protective effects of TTO in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) experimentally infected with A. hydrophila. Our results revealed that A. hydrophila infection increased seric NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activity, while ADA activity decreased. Also, the seric levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (INF-γ) increased in the infected fish, while the seric level of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) decreased. Treatment with TTO was able to prevent the impairment of purinergic enzymes and improve the innate immune response through the modulation of cytokine response during A. hydrophila infection. In summary, prophylactic therapy with TTO can be considered an important approach to improve the immune response and consequently avoid the inflammatory process in fish infected with A. hydrophila. ____________________________________________ interesting study done on ich Immunity to Ichthyophthirius infections in fish: a synopsis ____________________________________________ thats all i have for now. if anyone else has come across some interesting research on this topic feel free to share!