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Found 11 results

  1. I thought this relatively new data was really interesting. The USDA, in conjunction with two independent laboratories in New Zealand and Sweden along with three fisheries on the Snake River in Idaho, performed one of the most comprehensive studies on Oxygen deprivation while medicating fish I've seen. The study is vast (almost 400 pages of data!) and examined hundreds of parameters but in this instance, what seemed to hold potential benefits for an aquarist, a portion of the study was on the effects of adding aeration vs supplemental Oxygen to fish tanks during illness, while being medicated and to offset environmental stressors. The objective was to determine if increasing the dissolved Oxygen would raise the efficacy of medicinal treatments and/or improve mortality, as well as to determine if other stress factors shared similar weight in the efficacy of treatment. * In typical aquariums with some exceptions, 7.5PPM-8.5PPM of Oxygen is considered normal and healthy. In this experiment, they stocked rainbow trout (125g avg. weight) into tanks with three different values of dissolved Oxygen.: -Tanks average dissolved Oxygen concentration was at 7.5PPM. Survival and medicinal treatment efficacy were averaged at 88% in the 7.5PPM tanks. -Tanks average dissolved Oxygen concentration was at 6.5PPM. Survival and medicinal treatment efficacy were averaged at 68% in the 6.5PPM tanks. (A third test was done with Oxygen at only 4.5PPM but I've not included that as that level of Oxygen would not normally be present in a home aquarium). Considering that some medications can drop the tank O2 as low as 6PPM (see chart below), the 20% increase in mortality observed with the 6.5PPM tanks certainly underscores the need to keep the O2 high when using medications! They then administered what they considered ‘maximum aeration’. Survival and medicinal treatment efficacies rose, but to a disappointing amount: -Survival and medicinal treatment efficacy were averaged at 93% in the 7.5PPM tanks. -Survival and medicinal treatment efficacy were averaged at 74% in the 6.5PPM tanks. Notice the fish raised in 6.5PPM & 7.5PPM only benefitted about 5%-6% or so from aeration during treatment. That is, the Oxygen levels were essentially fully normalized once aeration was applied. In fact, O2 levels reached complete normality with simple aeration alone. (Their test was taken over a 120-day period). * As above, in a typical aquarium, just simple aeration will almost fully offset these Oxygen losses from some commonly used medications known to suppress dissolved Oxygen. Charted below are six tanks treated with some common medications most of us have used at the default dosages. The O2 level of this water before adding any chemicals was 8.5PPM: The one exception of the medications I've tested being nitrofurazone. Without aeration, it dropped O2 levels to borderline stressor levels (<=7PPM), but simple aeration raises and maintains it to/at 7.5PPM. However, unlike the other popular meds in the graph, O2 levels drop again as soon as aeration is ceased. Unlike all others in this limited test, nitrofurazone keeps the O2 down for at least 48 hours if not more (I only tested up to 48h). Only water changes rectified this. Notice Seachem Prime’s O2 depletion infamy is quite short lived. In just 15 minutes, most of the O2 has normalized and fully so inside of an hour. However, the Prime 5X ‘emergency dose’ drops O2 to near dangerous levels. So, aeration is imperative. Although aggressive aeration brought the O2 to normal levels, it didn’t affect the outcome of medicative stress, recovery or mortality very much. But they weren’t done with this concept. As aeration proved to assist in treatment recovery of only 5%-6%, the Snake River facility partnered with two university laboratories below to test if super saturation of the tanks with Oxygen (hyper-oxidation) would in fact improve the recovery from disease, improve medication tolerance and reduce mortality. HYPEROXIDATION But what if aquarium Oxygen is raised above saturation? If circa 7.5PPM Oxygen is normal and healthy, what effect if any, does hyper-saturation of the aquarium with Oxygen to say, 9PPM or 10PPM have on sick fish being treated with common medications? It's easy to do, but is it worthwhile? Their findings were surprising and potentially valuable to us. A study done by the Universities of Auckland and Gothenburg cites observances of medicated fish with supplemental Oxygen. It was found that an astounding leap in reduced mortality and medicinal treatment efficacy occurs when the tank is flooded with Oxygen. The tank had its Oxygen levels raised above normal Oxygen levels (circa 7.5PPM) and held to 9PPM-10PPM during treatments. Unlike the 5%-6% improvement in illness treatment with aeration alone, once the O2 was temporarily raised to between 9PPM and 10PPM, the outcomes changed dramatically: -Increased metabolism. -It was observed that a small but significant percentage of severely ill fish that were refusing food, began to ingest small amounts of medicated foods after being hyper-oxidated for 24-48 hours. -Improved ability to endure most common stressors. -Improved a fish's temperature tolerance substantially. On average, hyper-oxidation of the tanks reduced mortality during various medicinal treatments by 38%! It also increased the success rate of treatments by the same amount or greater! (Most of the treatments in these tests were deworming's so unfortunately, no data was presented for antibiotic treatments as these fish are raised for human consumption and the USDA limits antibiotic use. However, some of their tests did in fact include “unapproved” antibiotic treatments but the antibiotics used were not specified). The elephant in the room now would be to examine if raising the tanks O2 to hyper-saturation levels would or even could do any harm. To that end, the next observation should be if in fact there are any adverse observations on hyper-oxidation. They list the following as positive to neutral; -Had no effect on fry or juvenile growth. -Insignificant rise in resting metabolism but quickly returns to normal once ceased. -Substantially increases metabolism under stress.* -Increased aerobic capacity and cardiac performance. -Dramatic improvement in temperature variation tolerance. *I'm speculating here but this observation seems to me that it might prove the most important of all these benefits for weak or stressed fishes, especially while being medicated. * An interesting note here. Well into the study is this most odd finding. I wish they provided more information. The statement below is from the study but offers no explanation so I'm simply quoting it here verbatim: "Hyperoxidation of the tanks significantly assists in penetration and kill-off of anaerobic methane pockets, especially in sand and finer gravels." I wish there was more information provided on that one! * With a simple DIY addition, you can hyper-saturate your tank with Oxygen. It may help fish recover from disease and tolerate medications and has no known adverse effects. A simple, Hydrogen Peroxide degassing rig for removing the O2 from peroxide and delivering it to the tank with zero risk of toxicity is linked below. This simply degasses the O2 out of the peroxide and you pump it into the tank with an airstone. If the amounts of peroxide, the bucket size and air pump are used as listed, it will hyper-oxidate your tank to 9PPM-10PPM for two days: Degassing Peroxide Of course, with techniques such as these, you'll never truly know if it helped! But O2 can't hurt (many thanks to @Colu @Gator @dmurray407 @Guppysnail and @OnlyGenusCaps for their input) and a potential 38% improvement in recovery from illness in their tests may make this or some more sophisticated equivalent of this worth trying, especially if you're experiencing fatalities or recovery is slow or incomplete.
  2. Is it true that chlorine can be neutralized in the tank? What about putting water in Sunlight to break down chlorine? Thanks I just heard someone say you could add the water then the treatment and curious.
  3. Thank you in advance for everyone’s responses!! So I’m in the process of setting up a new fish rack with auto water built in and need some help. For the past year and a half I have been doing the bucket method and dosing with prime. But now I’m thinking can I get some sort of filter that removes my chlorine so I can run it straight to the tank? My ph levels are great water chemistry awesome around neutral I’m just scared of putting it thru a filter and loosing “good stuff”. I see many people to a tank or a large water holder that they use to fill the tank is that necessary?
  4. Been hearing a lot cities are switching away from using chlorine and chloramine in their water so this new thing they using how it is going to affect us ? Is it toxic to fish ? @Cory @Dean’s Fishroom @Zenzo @Bob @JimmyGimbal amyone with any insight would be appreciated
  5. I noticed that the new Aquarium Co-op strips test for chlorine, my question is, does that include chloramines as well? Im assuming that they don't.
  6. I've had a 120L tank cycling for about a week and a half (fishless). It's had trace amounts of ammonia / nitrite / nitrates as would be expected. Then suddenly this morning when I checked the water with a Tetra test strip I had a very high chlorine reading out of nowhere. I haven't done a water change in a week and there's been nothing new added into the tank. Any ideas where this might have come from? I've tested multiple different strips with the same result, tested other tanks (which displayed no issues), then used Prime to knock the chlorine down and watched it vanish from the test... so I believe the readings are correct. Has anyone had experience with chlorine showing up mysteriously this way?
  7. My fridge has a cartridge filter that filters chlorine (we don't have chloramine in our city water either) and other things like heavy metals. I'm wondering if I could use that instead of adding drops to my water change water. I presume it would also soften my water but tap water here is really soft and i add salts anyway. Does anyone already use 'fridge water in their tank?
  8. My Southern California water is hard, high-pH, and contains high quantities of chloramines. I have 13 tanks at last count. That's a lot of buckets to dechlorinate on water change day! About a year ago, I took the plunge and researched what it would take to pre-filter my tap water so that I could refill tanks directly, I'm really glad I did, because in the long run, it has saved me more hours than I can count! Thankfully, it's a lot easier than it might seem. Below I will walk through the steps the average household can take to set it up, to show how easy and effective it really is! Plan on a $100 total expense. (All links are non-affiliate) (I have ripped off illustrative pics from the internet. He had it coming.) (Apologies to our overseas friends; this is how I did it in the U.S.) I'm assuming you know how to connect push-fit quick-connectors: Push, then pull, then insert a blue clip. PARTS: 1. 2 x Clear filter housings for 10" x 2.5" filters: 1/4" ports ($28) (clear is useful to see how dirty the sediment filter is) 2. Sediment Filter Cartridge: 1 micron ($7) (you could get 5 micron, but at this cost, why?) 3. Chloramine Carbon Block Cartridge: 1 micron ($20) (this cartridge is overkill if you're only treating for chlorine) 4. RO Canister Wrench ($7) (must-have for opening/tightening canisters) 5. Threaded fittings for RO canister housings: 1/4" ($7) (this is a basic selection; you can get more fancy here: elbow, direct connection, etc.) 6. Water supply RO adapter ($11) (basic is generally fine) 7. 25'-50' of 1/4" RO hose ($9) (how much do you need to reach your tanks?) 8. Assorted RO hose fittings ($12) (buy them all; you'll use more than you think!) 9. Vaseline or silicone grease 10. Teflon tape. STEP 1: Tap into the Cold Water Supply Pick a room with running water. I used my kitchen sink because of its proximity to big tanks, but bathroom or laundry hookups will do. Right where the cold water supply feeds the faucet, you can easily install the adapter valve. To install, simply: 1. Place a towel under the cold water shut-off valve. 2. Turn off the cold water valve. 3. Disconnect the hose to the faucet. 4. Install the adapter (use teflon tape for the threads!). 5. Close the new adapter's valve. 6. Reattach the faucet hose. 7. Turn the water valve back on! Here's a not-very-helpful picture of my installation. I have a RO-drinking water unit, so I had a similar adapter already installed: I do not worry about water temperature when refilling my tanks. I can't prove it, but I've heard that a quick blast of cold water simulates a rainfall and can stimulate breeding and other behaviors. Otherwise I will lose gallons of water trying to get the mix just right every time. Maybe if I had a fish room, but for 13 tanks, cold water alone is just fine. I change 50% in every tank every weekend. STEP 2: Load the Canisters Each of the filter canisters has a black o-ring in its housing. You'll want to gently pry it out, coat it with some vaseline or silicone grease, and push it back in. You can then load the filter cartridges in each one and screw the housings into the lids. Use the wrench to tighten them. STEP 3: Connect the Filter Canister Tops An RO threaded fitting needs to be screwed in both ports on each of the two canisters. You must use teflon tape or you'll have leaks! Once closed up, you can use some RO tubing to connect them to your home water supply adapter. Take note of the "IN" and "OUT" markings on the lids. Run a short length of tubing from the new adapter on your plumbing to the "IN" port of the canister with the sediment filter. Then, run a very short tube from the "OUT" of that same canister to the "IN" of the canister with the carbon block. The remainder of your tubing can be attached to the "OUT" port of that second canister, and will hopefully reach your tanks. Be sure and put a ball valve (you bought several) on the end of the tubing to your tanks, so that you'll be able to turn it on and off at that point! STEP 4: Check for Leaks I had to do this several times until I had used enough teflon tape or vaseline grease on the o-rings. It's worth paying attention at this stage to save yourself grief later! I closed the valve on the very end of my tubing, and opened up all the others. I keep it in this state indefinitely. STEP 5: Flush out the Carbon Powder I ran my unit for about an hour into the sink, until the water came out with the lowest TDS and clarity. STEP 6: TEST! I have a chlorine test kit that measures total and free chlorine; this allows me to infer chloramine quantities when I compare with an ammonia test. None of this is necessary, in my opinion, except maybe for peace of mind. I found that water coming out of this unit tests at zero for chlorine, chloramine, and ammonia. I suppose maybe the ammonia could read as much as 0.25 ppm, but it's my opinion that it's not enough to hurt fish, and any bio filter will snap that up right away. STEP 7: USE IT! I keep all the valves open at all times, except for the one on the very end of the hose that goes in the tanks to refill. The water coming out of this unit is not high pressure; it runs about 1 gallon per minute for me. I prefer that. Now, I just uncoil my hose to any part of the house I need, and coil it back up under the cabinet when I'm done! Clean water from the tap! STEP 8: ADDITIONAL TIPS 1. You can drink it too. 🙂 Unless you're already drinking RO water, it's MUCH better filtered than that stuff that comes out of your fridge icemaker or Brita filter. 2. The hose is so small I can put a tiny hole in my wall and get it to a tank for a permanent installation: Think auto-water changing! 3. You can add stages to improve the filtering capabilities. For example: A 5 micron sediment filter before the 1 micron will increase the lifespan of the latter. I haven't needed this; at seven bucks I plan to change it once a year whether it needs it or not. If you just want to take care of chlorine and not chloramines, you can go for a less restrictive carbon filter, which will boost your water pressure. For more neutral water and low-pH applications, you can add an RO membrane or DI resin. And so on. 4. For filling my rack, I went nuts: Hope this has been helpful. Thanks for reading! Bill
  9. I use Tetra test strips most of the time in my fish room. They read zero chlorine on my tap water. I know this is wrong so, I use Tetra total chlorine to test my 3 stage filter water to make sure they do not need changed for auto water changes. My tap is between 2 and three ppm total chlorine. We have chloramine not chlorine. I think this would be worth mentioning when talking about testing water.
  10. I'd like to setup an automatic water change system. I know my water has chloramin and I'm assuming chlorine as well. What filters are people using for their water in order to get rid of these chemicals? Is it best to just add a whole home system or should I add a set of filters in-line for my auto water changes?
  11. The last two water changes I've done on my tanks I've completely neglected to to add prime! I had originally just looked up online for my area is said to have "some levels of chlorine" I also have crazy hard water... Lots of calcium because I can see the deposits on appliances but I've not specifically tested the levels. However, the tetra 6 in 1 strips seem to be registering zero chlorine from my tap. Would this be enough to stop dosing prime during water changes? I also have about 10-20 ppm of nitrates coming from the tap also.
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